Cardiac (Heart) Surgeries in India

It is a fact that all heart-related problems do not require surgery, as sometimes they can be treated with changes in lifestyle, medications, or other non-surgical procedures. However,  there are some heart conditions that can only be treated or prevented by surgical procedures, but these surgical procedures can also differ according to the patient’s problem.

Therefore, some wonder what are the types of heart surgeries? Here are the types of heart surgeries performed by the cardiac surgeons in India. 

Cardiac (Heart) Surgeries in India: Cardiac Surgeons & Hospitals

Types of heart surgeries: depending on surgical procedure.

Among the array of heart surgeries, various surgical techniques are employed to address specific conditions. These encompass the following notable procedures:

1. Open-heart surgery:
Referred to as traditional heart surgery, this technique entails the surgeon making an incision in the chest to access the heart. Given the complexity of operating on a beating heart, medications are administered to temporarily halt its function. Moreover, a heart-lung bypass machine is employed during the surgery to maintain blood flow and oxygen circulation throughout the body.

2. Off-pump heart surgery:
This approach, also performed on a beating heart, eliminates the need for a heart-lung machine. Instead, the surgeon employs specialized tools to address the specific cardiac issue, bypassing the usage of external assistance for heart function.

3. Minimally invasive heart surgery:
Distinguished by its smaller incisions made between the ribs, this surgical procedure involves the insertion of instruments into the chest by the surgeon. Depending on the circumstances, the surgeon may opt to employ a cardiopulmonary bypass device or operate without it, tailoring the approach to the patient’s unique situation.

4. Robotic-assisted surgery:
A cutting-edge method, robotic-assisted surgery employs computer-controlled instruments attached to a robotic system. The surgeon utilizes this technology to maneuver and perform precise interventions, enhancing the precision and dexterity of the procedure. This approach is considered minimally invasive and offers numerous advantages.

Types of Heart Surgeries: Location-based Procedures

  1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)

It is a surgical process in which coronary artery bypass grafting is done by connecting a healthy artery or vein from elsewhere in the body to supply blood through the blocked coronary artery. This procedure treats coronary artery disease (CAD) in one or more of your coronary arteries. This is the most common type of heart operation

  1. Heart valve repair or replacement

The cardiac surgeon repairs the heart valve or replaces it with an artificial or biological valve by inserting a catheter through a large blood vessel and directing it to the heart and inflating and deflating a small balloon at the tip of the catheter to widen the narrowed valve.

  1. Insertion of a pacemaker or an implantable defibrillator

Through this process, a device is inserted under the skin of the chest or abdomen with wires that connect it to the heart chambers. It helps regulate the heartbeat by sending electrical impulses.

As for the implantable defibrillator, it is often also inserted similarly, but it sends an electric shock to restore the normal rhythm of the heartbeat.

  1. MAZE surgery (Procedure)

The doctor creates a specific pattern of scar tissue within the upper chambers of the heart to redirect electrical signals from the upper chambers to the lower chambers, and to block stray electrical signals that cause atrial fibrillation.

  1. Aneurysm repair

This is a type of heart procedure in which a weakened portion of an artery or heart wall is replaced with a patch or graft to repair a bulge in the artery or wall of the heart muscle.

  1. Heart transplant

Among the types of heart operations: a heart transplant, where the heart of a patient who is unable to pump enough oxygenated blood to meet the needs of the body’s organs is removed and replaced with a healthy heart from a deceased donor.

  1. Other types of heart surgery Such as:

Heart surgery risks and complications: 

There is no doubt that heart surgery has very good outcomes. But it also has risks and complications as all other surgical procedures. Possible risks may include: 

  • bleeding.
  • infection.
  • fever.
  • swelling.
  • brain attack.
  • Confusion and difficulty thinking clearly.
  • Reactions due to anesthesia.
  • Arrhythmia.
  • Tissue damage to the heart, kidneys, liver, or lungs.

Factors that can increase the risk of heart surgery:

It should be noted that the risks may increase, especially if the patient suffers from the following:

  • Diabetes
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Kidney disease
  • Peripheral artery disease
  • Obesity

The best cardiology hospitals in India recommend patients with a wide range of treatment options such as medications and surgical procedures at affordable pricing. 

Recovery time from heart surgery:

Of course, the recovery time depends on the type of heart surgery that was performed, the overall health of the patient before the surgery, and the complications that the patient may suffer from due to the surgical procedure.

But for most types of heart surgeries, the patient will likely spend a day or more in the hospital’s intensive care unit, after which he is moved to the ward of the hospital to check that the patient does not have any complications, and then he is carefully taken home until he completes the recovery period.


In conclusion, cardiac surgeries in India encompass a range of techniques tailored to specific heart conditions. From traditional open-heart surgery to minimally invasive and robotic-assisted procedures, patients can benefit from advanced treatment options. Consult with a qualified specialist through for personalized care and improved outcomes in cardiac surgery.

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